Sunday, September 21, 2014

Review Notes: Structural Standards

Zoning, site characteristics, occupancy, configuring structural system and height
The procedures and limitations for the design of structures shall be determined by the following factors.

Minimum number of stories recommended to be provided with at least 3 approved recording accelerographs.

Maintenance and service of accelorographs  shall be provided by the ___

Occupant of the building
Who shall be responsible for keeping the actual live load below the allowable limits and shall be liable for any failure on the structure due to overloading

Load duration
The period of continuous application of a given load or the aggregate of periods of intermittent application of the same load

14 sq. m
Minimum area in square meters a member supports which the design live load may be reduced

1.50 sq. m
Minimum height of any wall requiring structural design to resist loads onto which they are subjected

1/240 of wall span
Maximum deflection of a brittle finished wall subjected to a load of 250 Pascal applied.

Perpendicular to said wall
1/120 of wall span Maximum deflection of flexible finished wall subjected to a load of 250 Pascal applied perpendicular to said wall

60 sq. m
Maximum floor area for a low-cost housing unit

The level at which the earthquake motions are considered to be imparted to the structure of the level at which the structure as a dynamic vibrator is supported

A member or an element provided to transfer lateral forces from a portion of a structure to vertical elements of the lateral force resisting system

A horizontal or nearly horizontal system acting to transmit lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements it includes horizontal bracing system

Base Shear V
The total designed lateral force or shear at the base of a structure

Boundary element
An element at edge of opening or at perimeters of shear walls or diaphragm

Brace Frame
An essentially vertical truss system of the concentric or accentric type which is provided to resist lateral forces

Building Frame System
A essentially complete space frame which provides supports for gravity loads

Dual System
A combination of a Special or Intermediate Moment Resisting Space Frame and Shear Walls or Braced Frame

Eccentric Brace Frame (EBF)
The form of braced frame where at least one end of each brace intersects a beam at a point away from the column girder joint

The entire assemblage at the Intersection of the members

The horizontal member in a frame system, a beam
-the major horizontal supporting member of the floor system

Diaphragm Strut
An element of a diaphragm parallel to the applied load, which collects and transfers diaphragm shear to vertical resisting elements of distributes loads within the diaphragm. Such members may take axial tension or compression

Diaphragm Chord
The boundary element of a diaphragm or a shear wall which is assumed to take axial stresses analogous to the flanges of a beam

Essential facilities
Those structures which are necessary for emergency post earthquake operations

Lateral Force Resisting System
That part of the structural system assigned to resist lateral forces

Ordinary Moment Resisting Space Frame
Moment resisting space frame not meeting special detailing requirements for ductile behavior

Story Drift
The displacement of one level relative to the level above or below

The usable capacity of a structure or its members to resist loads within the deformation limits prescribed in this document

The lower rigid portion of a structure having a vertical combination of structural system

Horizontal Bracing system
Horizontal truss system that serves the same function as a diaphragm

An assemblage of framing members designed to support gravity loads and resist lateral forces

Bearing Wall System
A structural system without complete vertical load carrying space frame. This system provides support for gravity loads. Resistance to lateral load is provided by shear walls or braced frames

Building Frame system
A structural system with essentially complete space frame providing support for gravity loads. Resistance to lateral load is provided by shear walls or braced frames

Moment Resisting Frame System
A structural system with an essentially complete space frame providing support for gravity loads. Moments resisting space frames provide resistance to lateral load primarily by flexural action of members.

Weak story
Is one in which the story strength is less than 80% of that the story above

Time History Analysis
An elastic or inelastic dynamic analysis in which a mathematical model of the structure is subjected to a ground motion time history. The structures time dependant dynamic response to these motion is obtained through numerical integration of its equations of motions.

Orthogonal Effect
The effect on the structure due to earthquake motions acting in directions other than parallel to the direction of resistance under consideration

P-delta effect
The secondary effect on shears and moments of frame members induced by the vertical loads acting on the laterally displaced building frame

Material other than water aggregate or hydraulic cement used as an ingredient of concrete and added to concrete before or during its mixing to modify its properties

Plain Concrete
Concrete that does not conform to definition of reinforced concrete

Upright compression member with a ratio of unsupported height to average least lateral dimension of less than three (3 m)

Modulus of Elasticity
Ratio of normal stress to corresponding strain for tensile or compressive stresses below proportional limit of material
-in the formula e=PL/AE, E stands for ___

Jacking Force
In prestressed concrete, temporary force exerted by device that introduces tension into prestressing tendons

Embedment Length
Length of embedded reinforcement provided beyond a critical section

Effective Prestress
Stress remaining in prestressing tendons after all losses have occurred, excluding effects of dead load and superimposed loads

Development Length
Length of embedded reinforcement required to develop the design strength of reinforcement at a critical section

Curvature friction
Friction resulting from bends or curves in the specified prestressing tendon profile

Structural Lightweight Concrete
Concrete containing lightweight aggregate

Bonded tendon
Prestressing tendon that is bonded to concrete either directly or through grouting

Structural Steel

High Yield Strength Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Plate, Suitable for Welding

True or False, bar larger than 32mm in diameter shall not be bundled in beams

40 mm
Minimum concrete cover for a Prestressed concrete for beams and columns for primary reinforcement

Poisson’s Ratio
In a material under tension or compression, the absolute value of the ratio transverse strain to the corresponding longitudinal strain

Slenderness Ratio
In column, the ratio of its effective length to its least radius of gyration

A quantity which measures the resistance of the mass to being revolved about a line

Flat slab
A type of concrete floor which has no beam

The tendency for one part of a beam to move vertically with respect to an adjacent part

A change in shape of a material when subjected to the action of force

Yielding Stress
The maximum value of tension, compression, or shear respectively the material sustain without failure

It means that by which a body develops internal resistance to stress
-Intensity of force per unit area
Allowable Stress
The greatest stress which a material is capable of developing without permanent deformation remaining upon the complete release of stress

Tie / Stirrup
Loop of reinforcing bar or wire enclosing longitudinal reinforcement

Stiffness Ration
The measure of stiffness of a material

Punching Shear
The failure in a base when a heavily loaded column strikes hole through it

The deformation of a structural member as a result of loads acting on it

6 inches
Nominal thickness of a timber

The sum of forces in the orthogonal directions and the sum of all moments about any points are zero

2 years
The complete records of tests conducted (slump, compression test, etc.) shall be preserved and made available for inspection during the progress of construction and after completion of the project for a period of not less than ___

Not less than 1”x4”
Wood board should have a thickness specification

The distance from the first to the last riser of a stair flight

Portable Hand router
A high-speed rotary shaping hand power tool used to make smooth cutting and curving on solid wood

Wood defects are: heart shake, cup shake, star shake and ___

Smoothed and planed lumber
Dressed lumber is referred to ___

Live load
It refers to the occupancy load which is either  partially or fully in place or may not be present at all

Cross cut saw
The other kind of handsaw other than rip cut saw

Effective Length
The distance between inflection points in the column when it breaks

The amount of space measured in cubic units

Contraction Joint
An expansion joint of adjacent parts of a structure to permit expected movements between them

Total Run
The total of all tread widths in a stair

Bond stress
The force adhesion per unit area of contact between two bonded surfaces

A structural member spanning from truss to truss or supporting a rafter

Size of dead load deflection
Size of camber for a 25 meters steel truss

Shear connector
A connector such as a welded strut, spiral bar, or short length of channel which resists horizontal shear between elements

Shear Stress (Shearing Stress)
The force per unit area of cross section which tend to produce shear

Hook’s Law
The law that relates the linear relationship between stresses and strain

4 x diameter of bolt
Minimum spacing of bolts in timber connection measured from center of bolts parallel for parallel to grain loading is equal to ___

4 x diameter of bolt
According to the provision of the NSCP on timber connection and fastening the loaded edge distance for perpendicular to grain loading shall be at least

NSCP specifies spacing between rows of bolts for perpendicular to grain loading shall be at least ___ times bolt diameter for L/d ratio of 2

12 mm
Minimum diameter of bolts to be used in timber connections and fastening in accordance with NSCP specifications

Simple solid timber columns have slenderness ratio not exceeding ___

11 diameters
Nails and spikes for which the wire gauges or lengths not set forth in the NSCP specifications shall have a required penetration of not less than __

1/6 depth of member
Notches in sawn lumber bending members in accordance with the NSCP specifications shall not exceed

Middle third span
Notches in sawn lumber shall not be located in the

¼ the depth
Notches in the top and bottom of joist shall not exceed

.60 of specified yield strength
Allowable stresses for tension in structural steel in terms of gross area

.50 of specified minimum tensile strength
Allowable tensile stress of structural steel based on effective area

0.45 Fy
Allowable stress for tension on pin connected members based on net area

0.40 Fy
Allowable shear stress on structural steel on the cross sectional area effective in resisting shear

For structures carrying live loads which induce impact, the assumed live load shall be increased
sufficiently to provide for same, for supports of elevators the increase shall be

The slenderness ratio of compression members shall not exceed ___

The slenderness ratio main members in tension shall not exceed ___

40 mm
Concrete cover for pipes, conduits, and fittings shall not be less than ___ for concrete exposed to earth or weather

20 mm
Concrete cover for pipes, conduits, and fittings shall not be less than ___ for concrete not exposed to earth or weather

7 days
Curing of concrete (other than high-early strength) shall be maintained above 10 C and in moist condition for at least the first ___ days after placement

7 days
If concrete in structure will dry under service conditions, cores shall be air-dried for ___ days before test and shall be tested dry.

3 days
Cutting for high early strength concrete shall be maintained above 10 C and in moist condition for at least the ___days after placement

25 mm
The minimum clear spacing between parallel bars in layer shall be db (diameter of bar) but not less than ___

180 deg. Bend +4db extension but not less than 65 mm at the end of bar
Standard hooks used in reinforced concrete beam shall mean

90 deg. Bend + 6db extension at free end
Standard hooks for stirrups and tie hooks 16mm bar and smaller

90 deg. Bend + 12db extension at free end
Standard hooks for stirrups and thie hooks 20-25 mm bar

-12 mm
Allowable tolerance on minimum concrete cover for depth greater than 200 mm

+-50 mm
Allowable tolerance for longitudinal location of bends and ends of reinforcement

40 db
Individual bars with a bundle terminated within the span of flexural members shall terminate at different points with a stagger of at least

3 db
Clear distance between pre-tensioning tendons at each end of member shall not be less than ___ for strands

4 db
Clear distance between pre-tensioning tendons at each of member shall to be less than ___ for wire

75 mm
Minimum concrete cover provided for reinforcement of cast in place against permanently exposed earth or weather using bars larger than 36 mm


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