Thursday, September 25, 2014

Philippine Church Architecture


* simple, patterned after early Christian types; either rectangular or cruciform with simple naves and aisles
* thick walls reinforced with heavy buttresses for earthquakes protection
* immense sizes because of colonial policy which dictated that a church should be built for every 5000 baptized
* materials used include: volcanic tuff (adobe), hardened lava, volcanic ejecta, sandstone, river boulders, clay, corals, limestone, oyster shells, eggs


PAOAY CHURCH, Ilocos Norte
* built in 1694 by Antonio Estavillo, completed 1702-1710
* façade: rectangular, with arched doorway, four continuous pilasters alternating with niches
* finials and crenellations at pediment niche at the apex
* huge volutes with low relief lines tracing the contour to disguise the large buttresses
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* finished in 1800
* located within the grid iron planned streets of a colonial town
* baroque elements include protruding columns and solid frames; three arched doorways leading to three naves at the first level, guarded by ionic pillars with chinese fu dogs
* urn-like finial at pediment

* constructed late 18th century, 85 steps leading to the church was built by Augustinian Benigno Fernandez
* massive brick church perched on a hill
* façade has circular buttresses, three openings and a blind niche, semi-circular pediment

* begun 1783-1788 by Dominican Domingo Forto and town mayor Pablo Sason; 1803-1808 – circular belltower was completed
* pampango artisans carved the hardwood molds for the clay insets that decorate the church
* ultra-baroque : unique for its extensive use of baked clay both for wall finishes and ornamentation
ornamental details : serpentine reliefs, spiral curves, flowers, foliage, sunfaces, cherubs and saints
* circular belltower with white limestone finish, decorated with bright red clay rosettes and festoons

* begun 1756-1773 by Augustinian Gregorio Giner; completed in 1802 by Fray Joaquin Calvo
* baroque style  : coupled Corinthian and Doric columns divide façade into levels or segments, statues ringed with wreath-like ornaments flank niches, windows with bas-relief “curtains”
* plain three-storey belltower with balustered top
* the Parish Church of Sta. Monica in Angat, Bulacan is situated in the hilly and mountainous southern portion of the province.

* 1871-1878 : stone church was constructed to replace wooden structure; 1880 – earthquake ruined the church
* 1885 : Augustinian Juan Giron commissioned a builder named Magpayo to rebuild the church
* variation on the circle motif
* flutings on pilasters with ends blunted into semicircles detract from the NeoClassical
* belltower has a cubic base, three layes accented by blind and open windows, top has crenellations and six-sided cone

* a church built for all times after previous churches were damaged by earthquakes in 1863 and 1880
* designed in the Gothic style (without flying buttresses) by Genaro Palacios in Revivalist architecture
* made entirely of steel; plans were sent to Belgium where the parts were made in sections then transported to Manila
* interiors were painted to resemble faux marble; adorned with sculpture by Eusebio Garcia and painting by Lorenzo Rocha

* oldest church in the Philippines; built 1587-1607 by Juan Macias according to the plans approved by the Royal Audencia de Mexico and by a Royal Cedula
* 1854 : Don Luciano Oliver (Municipal Architect of Manila) directed the renovation of the façade by adding to the height of the towers; these towers were damaged in the 1863 earthquake and were never rebuilt
* plaza adorned with Fu dogs represents colonial urban planning
* High Renaissance : superpositioned Tuscan orders at first level, Corinthian capitals at second level; circular windows at plain pediment; heavily carved, two-paneled main door with images of St. Augustine and St. Monica amidst Philippine flora
* nave is flanked by 12 collateral chapels each housing a Baroque or NeoClassic retablo
* Baroque elements include trompe l’oeil : sculpture by Italian artists Cesare Dibella and Giovanni Alberoni on the ceiling and pilasters
* cloisters built around an atrium with a garden planted by Augustinian botaninst Manuel Blanco

* 1858 : Fray Marcos Anton, with the help of the architect Don Luciano Oliver, started construction; the church was completed in 1878
* built on top of a hill and may be reached through flagstone steps, unobstructed by other buildings
* façade : arched windows alternate with Ionic columns at first level, Corinthian at upper level; projected cornices and mouldings; three pediments
* interior is cavernous bur drab with stout piers and semi-circular apse : mathematical exactness rather than ornamentation

* established by people who fled the eruption of Mt. Mayon form Cagsawa
* the Franciscan wanted a church with the best features of Romanesque and Gothic, but it was executed by the carvers in Baroque
* façade : a whole tablet without columns and cornices, only symmetrically positioned fenestrations, apertures and niches; whorls, twisted columns, foliage, medallions, statues and reliefs

* present church was built 1786-1797 under the supervision of fray Francisco Gonzales Maximo; a storey was added to the left belfry in 1830
* also served as fortress against Muslim pirates, simple and massive structure mixed with ornate details
* local botanical motifs at façade reliefs reminiscent of cookie cutouts (de gajeta), used to describe 16th century Mexican architectural reliefs

* built by Fray Juan de Albarran about 400 years ago, on the site where a soldier found an image of the Sto. Nino in a settlement that the Spanish soldiers have burned down
* the Convent was founded in 1565, making it the first to be built in the country
* constructed with stones from Panay and Capiz
* façade : blending of Moorish, Romanesque and NeoClassical elements; trefoils on the doorways; two levels divided into three segments and topped by pediment; retablo at the center
* belltower has four-sided balustraded dome
* interior : pierced screen with floral motifs, pineapple decors at the choirloft, corn cobs at the capital


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