Friday, September 26, 2014

RA 10609: Protection of Students’ Right to Enroll in Review Centers Act of 2013

President Benigno S. Aquino III signs Republic Act No. 10609, a new law which will prohibit higher educational institutions (HEIs) on forcing students to enroll on reviews centers before taking their respective licensure examinations. Under R.A. 10609, otherwise known as the “Protection of Students’ Right to Enroll in Review Centers Act of 2013”, higher educational institutions will be disallowed to compel their students to enroll on review centers chosen by the school.

HEIs should not make review sessions or classes a prerequisite or completion for graduation which will force students to pay for a certain amount of fee.
Note: Review classes are not part of the curriculum likewise the school’s choice of review center. Students may now freely choose their preferred review centers upon the implementation of this Act.

HEIs are also prohibited to withhold essential documents of the students like diploma, transcript of records, certifications, and other important school documents.
On a statement released by President Aquino on Tuesday, he said that:
the government must protect students against abuses of higher educational institutions over their right to choose review centers

Who are covered by this Act?

Republic Act No. 10609 covers all public and private higher educational institutions. This includes local colleges and universities which offer courses or college degrees that require professional licensure examinations.

What will be the punishment for violating Republic Act No. 10609?

Under this law, any official or employee of higher educational institutions such as the deans, professors, coordinators and other concerned school entities proven guilty of violating any of the provisions of this Act shall be sentenced with penalty of imprisonment from no lower than six months and one day to six years. The violator will also fine an amount of Php750, 000 and will be suspended in practicing her profession and will have his/her license revoked.

Here is the full text of the law:



Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled:

Section 1. Short Title. – This Act shall be known as the "Protection of Students’ Right to Enroll in Review Centers Act of 2013".

Section 2. Declaration of Policy. – It is the declared policy of the State to promote and protect the right to education as enshrined in the Philippine Constitution. While the State recognizes the complementary roles of public and private institutions in the enhancement and strengthening of the educational system, it is also the responsibility of the State to ensure the protection of students against possible abuses by Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) in relation to the right of students to choose their review centers.

Section 3. Coverage. – This Act shall cover all public and private HEIs, including local colleges and universities, offering courses that require professional licensure examinations.

Section 4. Unlawful Acts. – In recognition of the student’s freedom to choose his/her review center, the following acts by HEIs shall be considered unlawful:

(1) Compelling students enrolled in courses requiring professional examinations to take review classes, which are not part of the curriculum, in a review center of the HEI’s choice;

(2) Making such review classes a prerequisite for graduation or completion of the course;

(3) Forcing students to enroll in a review center of the school’s choice, and to pay the corresponding fees that include transportation and board and lodging; and

(4) Withholding the transcript of scholastic records, diploma, certification or any essential document of the student to be used in support of the application for the professional licensure examinations so as to compel the students to attend in a review center of the HEI’s choice.

Section 5. Penalties. – Any HEI official or employee, including deans, coordinators, advisers, professors and other concerned individuals found guilty of violating any of the unlawful acts enumerated in Section 4 of this Act shall suffer the penalty prision correccional or imprisonment from six (6) months and one (1) day to six (6) years and a fine of Seven hundred fifty thousand pesos (P750,000.00). He/She shall also be suspended from his/her office and his/her professional license revoked.

In addition, the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) may impose disciplinary sanctions against an HEI official or employee violating this Act pursuant to Section 13 of Republic Act No. 7722, otherwise known as the "Higher Education Modernization Act of 1994".

Section 6. Implementing Rules and Regulations. – The CHED shall be tasked to issue the implementing rules and regulations of this Act within thirty (30) days after this law takes effect.1âwphi1

Section 7. Separability Clause. – Should any provision herein be declared unconstitutional, the same shall not affect the validity of the other provisions of this Act.

Section 8. Repealing Clause. – All laws, presidential decrees or issuances, executive orders, letters of instruction, administrative orders, administrative memoranda, rules and regulations inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby amended, modified or repealed accordingly.

Section 9. Effectivity Clause. – This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days after its publication the Official Gazette or in two (2) newspapers of general circulation.


Acting Senate President (Sgd.) FELICIANO BELMONTE JR.
Speaker of the House of Representatives
This Act which originated in the House of Representatives was finally passed by the House of Representatives and the Senate on December 8, 2010 and June 5, 2013, respectively.

Secretary of the Senate

Speaker General
House of Representatives

Approved: AUG 23 2013

President of the Philippines

Prayer for Architects

Prayer for Architects 
(and for those who passed the Board Exams for Architects)

My Father God,
thank you for my talents and vocation
to be an Architect (Planner),
your co-creator of homes, buildings,
cities, and the world.

Out of infinite Love for us,
you created an unfinished world
so that we may continue creating it
and in this way
continue creating ourselves
to be the perfect, fulfilled, and happy
human beings you meant us to be.

We know only love
gives value to our project
and not its size
so give us plenty of it.

We know that creativity and smart work
are what we need
to build our masterpieces of form
and function so give us plenty of these.

We know we need people
who share our passion
to build a world that is beautiful
and sustainable for rich and poor alike

so give us loads of them
-- people who will appreciate
our creations and compensate us fairly.

With all these gifts,
in good and bad times,
we shall continue being the Architect
and honored us to be.

All these, we are ready to receive
through the merits of the passion
of our Lord Jesus Christ
and through your humble channel,
our Blessed Mother.


Prayer for Board Exams and Review

Prayer for Preparation to Study

Grant me peace, O God, as I open my books and notes. Open my mind to Thy will, and may I dedicate these hours to Thy Son, Jesus Christ.

Offer me insight, O Lord, that I might understand these things, and see them as a part of Thy Kingdom.

May I offer Thee my best in reading and learning that it may be a part of my discipleship.

O Jesus Christ, may this be a worthy time that is faithful to Thee and bring me closer to the goals I have in order to serve Thee. I offer this time and prayer in Thy holy Name. Amen.

Prayer Before an Exam

O wise God, I pray that my mind might be rested, my body energized, and my spirit inspired for the exam I must write.

Grant me peace and assurance so that I might do the best I am able, regardless of what that might be.

Be with my fellow students and may I be a good example to them, offering reassurance and confidence regardless of how I feel.

May I be honest and insightful, and able to give a true record of what I have learned. In the end, may any disappointment be born with grace, and any joy accompanied with humility.

I write this exam with Thee, O Lord Jesus Christ. Amen.

Prayer For Peace of Mind

In this time of anxiety, O loving God, grant me peace of mind. Quiet any distress and allow me to see clearly my mission and discipleship.

I pray for my examiners as well as for myself, so that they might be wise in their questioning so that it will allow for a true accounting of my learning and understanding.

May the memory of my family and friends remind me of their support, regardless of outcome, united with them in the spirit of love.

May I be wise enough to gain enough rest so all might be ready, my thoughts organized, and my life dedicated to serve Thee whatever the cost, through the love of Jesus Christ, my Saviour. Amen.

Prayer in a Time of Anxiety

When I am truly anxious, O God, remind me of my love of Thy Son, Jesus Christ. May I realize that I will not be abandoned, but am accompanied always by Him.

Dispel any sense of self-concern, and remind me that others are feeling the same tensions, which is only natural in times of stress.

Grant me insight, God of Wisdom, to see the things that have been taught, to understand them in the unfolding story of Thy Creation, and our place within it.

May I lay my head down to rest confident that Thou art always with us, through the love and affection of Thy Son, Jesus Christ, my Redeemer and Lord. Amen.

Prayer Before Retiring at Night

God of strength and of comfort, I close the day with thoughts of Thee.

As I turn myself over to the sleep of the present night, grant that Thy benediction may be upon me, and all whom I love. We depend upon Thy care, and pray that we may awake reassured of Thy presence.

No matter how late it might be, nor how early I might have to arise, may this time of sleep help to restore my calmness and perceptiveness, so that when I open my eyes next, I shall be ready to continue my study and service of Thee.

In the last moments of consciousness, I resign my life and purpose to Thee, and to Thy Son, Jesus Christ, in whose Name I pray. Amen.

Prayer When I Awake

May my first thoughts be of Thee, O Light of Life, and may I dedicate all that I do these coming hours to Thy glory.

If my task be to study, may I do it without hesitation. If I face an examination, may I meet it with determination and goodwill.

As I cast off the hour(s) of sleep, and prepare for my responsibilities for the day, may I always remember that Thou art with me in the person of Thy Son, Jesus Christ.

As I awaken, quicken my mind, enlarge my heart, and grant me wisdom to do my best in all I do this day.

May I be a true steward of the time I have this day, and dedicate all that I do to the love and care of my Lord and Redeemer, Jesus Christ. Amen.

The Lord's Prayer

Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be Thy Name. Thy Kingdom come, Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread, and forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive them that trespass against us; and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. For Thine is the Kingdom, the power and the glory, for ever and ever. Amen.

Exam Prayer

As Exam Day Approaches

O God of Wisdom, I thank you for the knowledge gained and the learning experiences of this year. I come to you on this day and ask you to enlighten my mind and heart. Let your Holy Spirit be with me as I prepare for exams, guiding my studies, and giving me insight so that I can perform to be best of my ability. Please grant me the strength to handle the pressure of these final days of the term, the confidence to feel secure in my knowledge, and the ability to keep an appropriate perspective through it all. Help me to keep in mind what is truly important, even as I focus my time and energy on these exams in the immediate future. Finally, may I sense your peace in knowing that I applied myself to the challenges of this day. I ask this through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen

Prayers for Students During Exams

First Day of Exams

"The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom, and they who live by it grow in understanding. Praise will be His for ever." Psalm 111: 10 (REB)

O wise God, I pray that my mind might be rested, my body energized, and my spirit inspired for the exam I must write.

Grant me peace and assurance so that I might do the best I am able, regardless of what that might be.

Be with my fellow students that I might be a good example to them of faithfulness, offering reassurance and confidence regardless of how I feel.

May I be honest and insightful, able to give a true record of what I have learned this past term. In the end, may any disappointment be born with grace and any joy accompanied with humility.

I write this examination with Thee, O God. Amen.

Second Day of Exams

"Wisdom has built her house; she has hewn her seven pillars. … The first step to wisdom is the fear of the Lord, and knowledge of the Most Holy One is understanding." Proverbs 9: 1,10 (REB)

Whether I have an exam or not, incline my ear to Thy word, and open my eyes to Thy presence. It is so easy to forget that Thou art with us.

Direct my energy to the accomplishment of Thy will for me, allowing my spirit to detect the direction in which I might best be Thy disciple.

Today I find myself immersed in words, sentences, symbols and equations – whatever language which my subject uses. May they speak clearly and with distinction.

May my desk be an altar where I may lay down my life through my efforts, and dedicate it all to Thee by quickening my knowledge for Thy will to be done. Amen.

Third Day of Exams

"When I look up at your heavens, the work of your fingers, at the moon and the stars you have set in place, what is a frail mortal, that you should be mindful of him, a human being, that you should take notice of him?" Psalm 8: 3,4 (REB)

Wondrous God, we look at Creation when we study, and see so much. We see the works of Thy fingers in the majesty of science and the arts, telling us that these are the implements by which we build Thy Kingdom.

We are in awe of the infinity of Thy universe, and seek to know as much as we are able. May the combination of all our minds open to us an understanding of the meaning of it all.Armed with this vision, may we explore the knowledge we have and use it wisely. In our examinations, may we display our knowledge with reverence and duty,

"Lord our Sovereign, how glorious is your Name throughout the world!" (Psalm 8: 9 (REB)) Amen.

O loving and merciful God, My whole existence depends on you, I ask you to send your Holy Spirit into my heart and mind. Fill me with your grace, beyond my own personal strength, So that I can dedicate the time and energy I need, to study. Give me the strength to resist the distractions from studying. When I am studying by myself, help me to remember that You are my companion, and that I am never alone. Help my teachers to explain things clearly. Help me to respect them. Help me to pay attention and to listen well in class. Give me the courage to ask questions when I don't understand. Give me the humility to ask for help when I need it. Help me to accept my results After I have done all I can do. Give me a spirit of gratitude For the privilege of learning at this school, While many people in the world do not get such a good opportunity. Help me to make the most of the wonderful gifts you have given me, And to return them to you with generosity. You have been with me through rough times in the past. Help me to trust that you are here with me now. Give me hope for the future, And help me to trust that, whatever the future brings, You are already there waiting for me With your loving embrace. I Offer you this prayer through your Son, My Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, Who lives and reigns with you, forever and ever. Amen

Prayer to St. Joseph of Cupertino for success in Examinations.

This powerful prayer is very effective in examinations. It has to be said before appearing in the examination. There are two variants to this prayer. Both the prayers are equally effective. You can choose any one of these:-

First Prayer

O Great St. Joseph of Cupertino who while on earth did obtain from God the grace to be asked at your examination only the questions you knew, obtain for me a like favour in the examinations for which I am now preparing. In return I promise to make you known and cause you to be invoked.

Through Christ our Lord.

St. Joseph of Cupertino, Pray for us.


Second Prayer

O St. Joseph of Cupertino who by your prayer obtained from God to be asked at your examination, the only preposition you knew. Grant that I may like you succeed in the (here mention the name of Examination eg. History paper I ) examination.

In return I promise to make you known and cause you to be invoked.

O St. Joseph of Cupertino pray for me

O Holy Ghost enlighten me

Our Lady of Good Studies pray for me

Sacred Head of Jesus, Seat of divine wisdom, enlighten me.

Remember, when you succeed in the exams, then you should thank St. Joseph of Cupertino in the Newspaper or HERE.

The Difference

I got up early one morning and rushed right into the day;
I had so much to accomplish, I didn't have time to pray.

Problems just tumbled about me and grew heavier with each task;
Why doesn't God help me, I wondered; He answered, "You didn't ask."

I wanted to see joy and beauty, but the day toiled on, gray and bleak;
I wondered why God didn't show me - He said, "But you didn't seek."

I tried to come into God's presence; I used all my keys at the lock;
God gently and lovingly chided, "My child, you didn't knock."

I woke up early this morning and paused before entering the day;
I had so much to accomplish that I had to take time to pray.

Sample Design Problem 1

DATE/ TIME: 27 November 2009 and 03 December 2009, 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m.
VENUES (4) : Al-Khobar & Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA); Doha (Qatar); Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE)
WARNING: If there are conflicts between a stated word and the number/ amount/ figure described, the stated / spelled word shall prevail. Should there be conflicts between two (2.0) stated quantities, the higher figure shall prevail.

IMPORTANT NOTE: For this reformat of the examination in this subject, the Examinee shall be allowed to make full use (open books) ONLY of Rule VII and Rule VIII of the 2004 Revised Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) of Presidential Decree (P.D.) No. 1096, otherwise known as the 1977 National Building Code of the Philippines (NBCP) i.e. ONLY as downloaded and reproduced from the PRBoA website at The use of other IRR versions are specifically disallowed during this examination.

A. PROJECT NO. 1,2,3,4 & 5 TITLE (and General Description):

A Proposed _______-Rise _______________ Project [development with Basement, Podium (with covered parking) and Tower components] on a Project Site with a ________ Percent (0.0%) Slope

A _________ has decided that its _________ (X-X, e.g. R-3, C-2, I-1)-zoned property (the “Project Site), with a Total Lot Area (TLA) of ______________square meters (0.0 SqM) and located in _____________, shall host a __________-rise __________________ Building (the “Project”).

The Project Site is a _______ lot, with a _____ meter (0.0 m) wide frontage facing _______. The Project Site uniformly slopes at 0.0% towards the _______ (0.0) m wide street i.e. the road right-of-way (RROW) that is also relatively flat (at a slope of 0.0%) and which has ________ (0.0) m wide sidewalks at both sides. The surface of the sidewalk at the center of the Project Site frontage is considered as elevation 0.0 m.
The 0.0 m wide RROW was recently declared an arcaded street by city ordinance. The proposed building is also fully covered by a separate Green Building ordinance. To the _____ of the Project Site (as viewed from the RROW) are ____________ complexes. Across the Project Site is a long row of _____-rise ___________ buildings.

a. To plan/ design a _______________ building with features such as _____________________;
b. To plan/ design the Project in a way that can maximize profits for the Project Proponent; the ratio of saleable versus non-saleable spaces based on GFA shall be at 0:0; and
c. To plan/ design the Project to serve as a landmark in the host area.

Sample FLEA Design Questions from Al-Khobar & Jeddah, KSA (administered 27 November 2009)

Project No. 2: A Proposed Medium-Rise Apartment Building
B. Test for Knowledge of Site Planning
Note: Only the choices to the question are shown. The reader must do
research to arrive at the correct (or best) answers.
Project No. 2. Under the 2004 Revised Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) of P.D. No. 1096 or the 1977 National Building Code of the Philippines (NBCP), what is the minimum unpaved surface area (USA) for the Project Site (zoned as Maximum R-3)? The answer is a percentage (%) of the Total Lot Area (TLA).
Note: To arrive at the answer, the examinee must make use of table/s from the 2004 Revised IRR of P.D. No. 1096/ NBCP (open books).
a. 30
b. 20
c. 10
d. 70
Project 2. For the Project Site (zoned as Maximum R-3 under the NBCP), how much is the minimum USA (in square meters)?
Note: To arrive at the answer, the examinee must make use of table/s from the 2004 Revised IRR of P.D. No. 1096/ NBCP (open books).
a. 400
b. 700
c. 500
d. 600
Project 2. What is the maximum allowable impervious surface area (ISA) for the Project Site (zoned as Maximum R-3 under the NBCP), if the building shall NOT have a firewall? The answer is a percentage (%) of the Total Lot Area (TLA).
Note: To arrive at the answer, the examinee must make use of table/s from the 2004 Revised IRR of P.D. No. 1096/ NBCP (open books) and use a simple calculator.
a. 10
b. 20
c. 70
d. 30
Project 2. For the Project Site (zoned as Maximum R-3 under the NBCP), how much is the maximum allowable ISA (in square meters)?
Note: To arrive at the answer, the examinee must determine the total lot area (TLA) from the information given in the Project description, then make use of table/s from the 2004 Revised IRR of P.D. No. 1096/ NBCP (open books) and finally use a simple calculator.
a. 1,800
b. 2,400
c. 1,200
d. 3,000
Project 2. For the Project Site (zoned as Maximum R-3 under the NBCP), how much is the combined total for the maximum allowable ISA plus the minimum USA (in square meters)?
Note: To arrive at the answer, the examinee must determine the total lot area (TLA) from the information given in the Project description, then make use of table/s from the 2004 Revised IRR of P.D. No. 1096/ NBCP (open books) and finally use a simple calculator.
a. 2,400
b. 2,700
c. 1,800
d. 2,100

III.Sample FLEA Design Questions from
Doha, Qatar & Abu Dhabi, UAE
(administered 03 December 2009)

Note: Only the choices to the question are shown. The reader must do
research to arrive at the correct (or best) answers.

Project No. 1:
A Proposed Open Market Residential Housing Prototype

A. Test for Knowledge of General Compliances Relative to Site Planning and to the Planning and Design of Buildings_(DAD, RANDOM)
Project 1. Under the 1977 National Building Code of the Philippines (NBCP), what is covered by the Building Height Limit (BHL) for the Project?
Note: To arrive at the answer, the examinee must extract the necessary information from the 2004 Revised IRR of P.D. No. 1096/ NBCP (open books).
a. antenna
b. electrical or electronic devices mounted on top of the parapet wall, if introduced
c. deck roof level parapet wall, if introduced
d. mast

Project No. 2:
A Proposed Medium-Rise Apartment Building

C. Test for Knowledge of Space Planning_(DAD, RANDOM)
Project 2. Using the maximum Total Gross Floor Area (TGFA) and the Building Height Limit (BHL) that are allowed for the Project under the NBCP, what shall be the resultant TGFA per floor (in square meters)?
Note: To arrive at the answer, the examinee must determine the total lot area (TLA) from the information given in the Project description, then make use of table/s from the 2004 Revised IRR of P.D. No. 1096/ NBCP (open books) and finally use a simple calculator.
a. 2,666
b. 4,222
c. 5,444
d. 3,888

Project No. 3:
A Proposed Medium-Rise Office Condominium

D. Test for Knowledge of Architectural Design of Buildings (General & Specific) _(DAD, RANDOM)
Project 3. In terms of material production, which of the following flooring materials is considered to have the lowest carbon footprint?
Note: To arrive at the answer, the examinee (assumed to have worked for at least 2 years/ 3,840 hours) must read available information on the subject, do some independent research or make the necessary inquiries. The 2004 Revised IRR of P.D. No. 1096/ NBCP is not needed to answer this question.
a. baked clay tiles
b. hand-cut natural stone
c. ceramic tiles
d. high-pressure laminate flooring

Project No. 4:
A Proposed Low-Rise National Government Office Building
E. Test for Knowledge of Structural Conceptualization_(DAD, RANDOM)
Project 4. Assuming a heavily forested location for the Project Site, what type of roof structure should be introduced?
Note: To arrive at the answer, the examinee (assumed to have worked for at least 2 years/ 3,840 hours) must read available information on the subject, do some independent research or make the necessary inquiries. The 2004 Revised IRR of P.D. No. 1096/ NBCP is not needed to answer this question.
a. steel deck roof
b. steep gable roof
c. RC deck roof
d. low-slope metal roofing on space frame

Project No. 5:
Proposed Medium-Rise Garment and Undergarment Factory Building
F. Test for Knowledge of Architectural Interiors (AI)_(DAD, RANDOM)
Project No. 5. Which of the following is a good lighting device for a general production area with the ceiling consisting of the soffit of a suspended slab?
Note: To arrive at the answer, the examinee (assumed to have worked for at least 2 years/ 3,840 hours) must read available information on the subject, do some independent research or make the necessary inquiries. The 2004 Revised IRR of P.D. No. 1096/ NBCP is not needed to answer this question.
a. pendant lighting (suspended incandescent lamps)
b. industrial lighting (suspended fluorescent lamps with reflectors)
c. pendant lighting (suspended CFLs with housing)
d. troffer lighting (fluorescent lamps with soffit-mounted lightboxes and diffusers)

Determining AMBF & PSO (R-1 & R-2)

The following rules shall be observed in the determination of the Allowable Maximum Building Footprint (AMBF) for buildings and related habitable structures. If the stated rules are compared with

a) Rule VIII Table VIII.1.- Reference Table on Percentage of Site Occupancy and Maximum Allowable Construction Area (MACA);

b) Rule VIII Tables VIII.2. and VIII.3. (setbacks, yards and courts); or

c) with the applicable stipulations under this Rule and with the applicable stipulations of the Fire Code,

the more stringent but applicable regulation out of the aforementioned rules should be observed.

To know more about Development Controls, PSO, AMBF, ISA, USA, TOSL, MACA, GFA, TGFA, AMVB, BHL, etc., enroll in Review Course for Rule 7&8. Text to 09175874827 or email to

Determining Allowable Maximum Volume of Building (AMVB)

ALLOWABLE MAXIMUM VOLUME OF BUILDING (AMVB) Above-Grade – The limit of the total volume of space that can be occupied by a proposed building/structure above grade level. the AMVB is an imaginary prism within the fully enclosed areas and courts of a proposed building/structure shall fit.

Quantifying the AMVB. The AMVB shall be primarily determined by the following:

a. Multiply the AMBF (in square meters) for the lot by the applicable BHL (in meters) for the lot to arrive at the initial AMVB (in cubic meters); the result of this step is the imaginary footprint prism;

b. Superimpose the angular plane originating from the center of the RROW on the footprint prism; this shall result in the reduction of the initially computed building volume due to the application of incremental setbacks and of roof configuration dictated by the angular plane; the result of this step is the AMVB;

c. To crosscheck the AMVB against the Allowable Maximum TGFA (separately determined), convert the AMVB into its approximate area equivalent (in sq. meters) by dividing it with the BHL. Before converting the AMVB to its area component, check for the effects of the incremental setbacks on the TGFA for each floor of the proposed building/structure.

To know more about AMVB and enroll in Rule 7&8 courses, text to 0917-5874827.

Thursday, September 25, 2014

Philippine Church Architecture


* simple, patterned after early Christian types; either rectangular or cruciform with simple naves and aisles
* thick walls reinforced with heavy buttresses for earthquakes protection
* immense sizes because of colonial policy which dictated that a church should be built for every 5000 baptized
* materials used include: volcanic tuff (adobe), hardened lava, volcanic ejecta, sandstone, river boulders, clay, corals, limestone, oyster shells, eggs


PAOAY CHURCH, Ilocos Norte
* built in 1694 by Antonio Estavillo, completed 1702-1710
* façade: rectangular, with arched doorway, four continuous pilasters alternating with niches
* finials and crenellations at pediment niche at the apex
* huge volutes with low relief lines tracing the contour to disguise the large buttresses
photo credit:

* finished in 1800
* located within the grid iron planned streets of a colonial town
* baroque elements include protruding columns and solid frames; three arched doorways leading to three naves at the first level, guarded by ionic pillars with chinese fu dogs
* urn-like finial at pediment

* constructed late 18th century, 85 steps leading to the church was built by Augustinian Benigno Fernandez
* massive brick church perched on a hill
* façade has circular buttresses, three openings and a blind niche, semi-circular pediment

* begun 1783-1788 by Dominican Domingo Forto and town mayor Pablo Sason; 1803-1808 – circular belltower was completed
* pampango artisans carved the hardwood molds for the clay insets that decorate the church
* ultra-baroque : unique for its extensive use of baked clay both for wall finishes and ornamentation
ornamental details : serpentine reliefs, spiral curves, flowers, foliage, sunfaces, cherubs and saints
* circular belltower with white limestone finish, decorated with bright red clay rosettes and festoons

* begun 1756-1773 by Augustinian Gregorio Giner; completed in 1802 by Fray Joaquin Calvo
* baroque style  : coupled Corinthian and Doric columns divide façade into levels or segments, statues ringed with wreath-like ornaments flank niches, windows with bas-relief “curtains”
* plain three-storey belltower with balustered top
* the Parish Church of Sta. Monica in Angat, Bulacan is situated in the hilly and mountainous southern portion of the province.

* 1871-1878 : stone church was constructed to replace wooden structure; 1880 – earthquake ruined the church
* 1885 : Augustinian Juan Giron commissioned a builder named Magpayo to rebuild the church
* variation on the circle motif
* flutings on pilasters with ends blunted into semicircles detract from the NeoClassical
* belltower has a cubic base, three layes accented by blind and open windows, top has crenellations and six-sided cone

* a church built for all times after previous churches were damaged by earthquakes in 1863 and 1880
* designed in the Gothic style (without flying buttresses) by Genaro Palacios in Revivalist architecture
* made entirely of steel; plans were sent to Belgium where the parts were made in sections then transported to Manila
* interiors were painted to resemble faux marble; adorned with sculpture by Eusebio Garcia and painting by Lorenzo Rocha

* oldest church in the Philippines; built 1587-1607 by Juan Macias according to the plans approved by the Royal Audencia de Mexico and by a Royal Cedula
* 1854 : Don Luciano Oliver (Municipal Architect of Manila) directed the renovation of the façade by adding to the height of the towers; these towers were damaged in the 1863 earthquake and were never rebuilt
* plaza adorned with Fu dogs represents colonial urban planning
* High Renaissance : superpositioned Tuscan orders at first level, Corinthian capitals at second level; circular windows at plain pediment; heavily carved, two-paneled main door with images of St. Augustine and St. Monica amidst Philippine flora
* nave is flanked by 12 collateral chapels each housing a Baroque or NeoClassic retablo
* Baroque elements include trompe l’oeil : sculpture by Italian artists Cesare Dibella and Giovanni Alberoni on the ceiling and pilasters
* cloisters built around an atrium with a garden planted by Augustinian botaninst Manuel Blanco

* 1858 : Fray Marcos Anton, with the help of the architect Don Luciano Oliver, started construction; the church was completed in 1878
* built on top of a hill and may be reached through flagstone steps, unobstructed by other buildings
* façade : arched windows alternate with Ionic columns at first level, Corinthian at upper level; projected cornices and mouldings; three pediments
* interior is cavernous bur drab with stout piers and semi-circular apse : mathematical exactness rather than ornamentation

* established by people who fled the eruption of Mt. Mayon form Cagsawa
* the Franciscan wanted a church with the best features of Romanesque and Gothic, but it was executed by the carvers in Baroque
* façade : a whole tablet without columns and cornices, only symmetrically positioned fenestrations, apertures and niches; whorls, twisted columns, foliage, medallions, statues and reliefs

* present church was built 1786-1797 under the supervision of fray Francisco Gonzales Maximo; a storey was added to the left belfry in 1830
* also served as fortress against Muslim pirates, simple and massive structure mixed with ornate details
* local botanical motifs at façade reliefs reminiscent of cookie cutouts (de gajeta), used to describe 16th century Mexican architectural reliefs

* built by Fray Juan de Albarran about 400 years ago, on the site where a soldier found an image of the Sto. Nino in a settlement that the Spanish soldiers have burned down
* the Convent was founded in 1565, making it the first to be built in the country
* constructed with stones from Panay and Capiz
* façade : blending of Moorish, Romanesque and NeoClassical elements; trefoils on the doorways; two levels divided into three segments and topped by pediment; retablo at the center
* belltower has four-sided balustraded dome
* interior : pierced screen with floral motifs, pineapple decors at the choirloft, corn cobs at the capital

Review Notes: Planning Terms


A wide area of parks of undeveloped land surrounding a community

The process in which a piece of land, referred to as a parent tract is subdivided into two or more parcels

Angles measured clockwise form any direction (meridian) usually north, however national geodetic survey uses south

Final Plat   
Usually the last stage of the final site development process prior to the issuance of the building permit

Urban sprawl      
A 20th century problem emanating from rapid urbanization of areas surrounding a city

Advocacy Planning        
A type of planning which emphasizes that the proper role of the planner is not to serve the general public interest but to serve the interest of the least fortunate

Sustainable land use Planning 
It is the type of land use planning that emphasizes management of land resources

R.A 7160    
This code mandates that all LG4’s shall prepare their comprehensive land use plans & enact them through zoning ordinances

Promote human growth
Reason for planning
Sustainable development         
Phrase used to characterize development that mends the needs of the present generation

Hippodamus of Miletus 
First planner & developed the Gridiron

A locale with a sizeable agglomeration of people having characteristics of an urban being

Agricultural surplus      
The main reason why the nomadic existence of early man metamorphosed to village settlement & later to cities

The rough equivalent of the present tenement cities that existed in ancient Rome

True bounded city         
In urban geography, a concept where urban settlement is confined to the area within the legal limits of the city & the congestion & virtually all of this area occupied by residents

City planning       
A land development decision is also what kid of decision the orderly arrangement of urban streets & public places

Daniel Burnham  
He conceptualized the city beautiful movement

Subdivision Regulations
A tool used to control the manner in which raw kind is subdivided & placed on the marker for residential development

Urban Design      
A profession which falls between planning & architecture

Human settlement
The science of human settlements by definition settlement inhabited by man

Capital facilities Plan
Planning for roads, bridges, schools

Physical Settlement       
The container of man, which consist of both the natural & man made or artificial

Concentric zone theory 
A spatial organization concept a general view of the pattern of land use in a city. Developed by E.W Burgess

Buildable area     
The remaining space in a lot after deducting the required minimum open spaces

Dwelling unit       
A habitable room for 1 family with facilities for living, sleeping, cooking & eating

Gabion wall
A type of retaining wall made of rectangular baskets of galvanized steel

A very steep slope of rock or clay

A pieced of grassy land, especially one used for growing hay or as pasture for grazing

A long, narrow chain of hills or mountains

A long, deep, narrow valley eroded by running water

On land, and enclimbrance limiting its use for community or mutual protection

On land, a contiguous land area which is considered as a unit, which is subject to a single ownership & which is legally recorded as a single piece

Common wall      
A wall that serves two dwelling units, known also as a party wall

Niemeyer believed that relating large areas to each other is freedom as in the planned city of …

In architectural terms, it is the relationship of the number of residential structures & people

National Shelter Program       
The government arm responsible for the development & implementation of low cost housing in Phil.

Social Housing     
Housing provided for low income groups generally through government intervention & characterized by substantial & direct assistance

Earnest Money    
Sometimes called “this is a deposit given to the seller to show that the potential buyer has serious intentions

A provision made in advance for the gradual liquidation of a future obligation by periodic changes against the capital account

Written document to transfer the property from one person to another

They develop or improve the land as well as construct houses

Determine the value of the houses & also is familiar with trends in the local market & the industry

Real Estate Broker        
Helps people find a place to live, specializing & matching wants of buyers with the local supply

Total system        
Are usually large concrete slabs or otherwise panelized units fabricated in a shop & assembled on site

Housing code       
Codes that deal with the use, occupancy & maintenance of existing building

Designed to regulate land use, to ban industry & commerce from residential areas & to separate different types of living units

Prefabricated Manufacturer   
Construct three dimensional volumetric units in a plant on a production & then hauled to the site

System building is a complete integration of all

Urban Renewal    
The improvement of slum, deteriorated under utilized areas of the city

Code of Municipality tradition
An area which is within city limits, or closely linked to it by common use of public utilities & services two major hindrances to the prefabrication industry

Three general type of structures

Productive use     
A piece of land with an economic use for farming

Health & general use     
Lands for well-being like a parks, plazas

Social implication
As the cost of land, neighborhood have this effect

8.00 m        
Minimum road width in a neighborhood to ease traffic flow

Which building component receives priority location to have morning sun

Growth & change
Urban planning is briefly described as the guidance of

A lattice structure that serves as a summer house

Grass & Plants    
In landscaping, ground cover is represented as

Site Planning       
The art of arranging building & other structures in harmony with the landscape

The study of the dynamic relationship between a community of organism & its habitat

Accurate aerial    
Preparations of an accurate base map for urban

Planning starts with

Appraisal for adequacy of a city’s water & sewer systems

Needs of future land uses are embodied in the

Also called the blood stream of a city

A form of absence of all the principles & organized

Urban blight        
Development of a community

The city of Washington conforms to the plan type of

An efficient & rapid transport system for automobiles to circulate across urban to urban areas

A monument, fixed object, or marker used to designate the location of a land boundary on the ground

A narrow passageway bordered by trees, fences or other lateral barrier

Land-Use Plan     
The projection of a future pattern of use within an area, as determined by development

The part of the surface of the earth not permanent covered by water

Land boundary    
A lie of demarcation bet. Adjoining parcels of land

Land survey        
A survey of landed property establishing or re-establishing lengths & directions of the boundary line

Land use survey  
The study & recording of the way in which land is being used in an area

In surveying, the north south component of a traverse course

An open space of ground of some size, covered with grass & kept smoothly mown

A contract transferring the right of possession of building, properties etc. to a fixed period of time, usually for periodically compensated “rent”

A tenure by lease, real estate held under a lease

Wednesday, September 24, 2014

Influential Architects - Le Corbusier

Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, better known as Le Corbusier, was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture.

Le Corbusier’s collected articles proposed a new architecture that would satisfy the demands of industry, hence functionalism, and the abiding concerns of architectural form, as defined over generations. His proposals included his first city plan, the Contemporary City, and two housing types that were the basis for much of his architecture throughout his life: the Maison Monol and, more famously, the Maison Citrohan, which he also referred to as “the machine of living.”

Development Impact Analysis

Development Impact Analysis

Why conduct development impact analysis?

Growth has been viewed as healthy and desirable for communities because it often leads to additional
jobs; increased income for residents; a broader tax base; and the enhancement of cultural amenities
such as libraries and parks. However, communities are increasingly aware that growth may also be
accompanied by costs such as increased fiscal expenditures for necessary public services and infrastructure, traffic congestion, consumption of local natural resources, loss of open space and unique cultural attributes. In addition, development decisions are too often made without a sufficient
understanding of the consequences of those decisions on overall community well-being. Since changes induced by growth in a community are not always positive, carefully planned development is necessary for ensuring that growth is consistent with the long-range goals of the community.

Development impact assessment provides a framework for addressing this issue. It is designed to assist local planners and decision-makers in understanding, ahead of time, what types of impacts a particular development may have on a community, thus allowing time for avoidance or mitigation of any adverse effects of a proposed development.

What is a Development Impact Assessment?

Development impact assessment involves a process to comprehensively evaluate the consequences of
development on a community. The assessment process should be an integral part of the planning
process as it provides extensive documentation of the anticipated economic, fiscal, environmental,
social and transportation-related impacts of a particular development on a community.

The development impact assessment process makes use of existing information, where possible to
determine potential impacts of a proposed development. It also employs techniques to gather additional, new information, where necessary. Development impact assessment provides a framework
to integrate these data, models, spatial and statistical analyses and experiences in other locales to
predict development impacts. For each, impact area (i.e. fiscal, environmental, socio-economic, and
transportation), this guide provides a series of worksheets, questions and other methods that may be
used to collect information that will assist local officials and planners in assessing impacts.

What are the Benefits of Conducting a Development Impact Assessment?

The development impact assessment process is designed to enhance sound land use management at the local level. Effective land use planning includes a number of important characteristics. The Department of Natural Resources considers a particular land use to be sound if it minimizes adverse environmental impacts, is suitable for the location, makes efficient use of existing community infrastructure and services, accounts for community costs, is the product of broad public consensus and is consistent with community regional character. This guide and the development impact assessment process, in general, are designed to ensure that sound land use practices are integrated into day-to-day operations of local government and are included in long-range plans for communities.
Development, especially that which is large, unique or precedent-setting may have a substantial impact on a community’s financial, environmental and cultural resources. Development impact assessment provides an opportunity for communities to gain advance understanding of the potential impacts of a particular development, so that they may plan to both efficiently meet new service demands (e.g., additional road construction or water line installation) and avoid potential environmental or social costs that may accompany the development. Development impact assessment is also important because it:

• Promotes communication and conflict resolution among local officials and residents. The
assessment process involves collaboration between local officials and citizens to identify
concerns, exchange information and evaluate potential impacts associated with the development. The process is also a valuable tool for minimizing the risk of conflict between groups about the proposed development.

• Encourages responsive and informed decision-making. The assessment of impacts helps ensure that local officials acknowledge and respond to citizen concerns. Active involvement of both citizens and local officials in the assessment can lead to informed decisions that are consistent with long-term goals of the community.

• Addresses the range of potential impacts associated with a proposed development. The development impact assessment process is designed to address the potential , fiscal, environmental, socio-economic, and traffic impacts related to a proposed development. The comprehensive nature of development impact assessment ensures that many impacts are considered in the planning process and thus results in more informed development-related decisions.

• Facilitates interagency cooperation and efficiency. Since comprehensive impact assessment considers the range of potential impacts of a proposed development, the process requires substantial cooperation among various governmental departments to collect and analyze data about the project. For example, a proposal to construct a shopping center on the outskirts of town may require estimates of increased traffic congestion from the Department of Transportation, a biological assessment of the site from the Department of Natural Resources, and a benefit/cost analysis from the Department of Public Works or Planning Department. Moreover, the development impact assessment provides a common repository for information collected from each agency and the public.

• Promotes fairness and consistency in the development process. The systematic approach
applied during the assessment process ensures that all impacts are considered for each proposed

• Identifies resource needs and constraints. An important component of the development impact assessment is that the process helps local officials identify public services that need to be expanded or public facilities that need to be built or improved upon to accommodate growth. It also identifies, in advance of development, potential resource constraints (e.g., financial or environmental resources) that may impede the success of a proposed development.

What Types of Impacts Matter and Why?


Fiscal analysis involves assessing the public service costs and revenues associated with the development. Such an analysis projects the net cost of the development on the fiscal balance sheet of
the community. Since fiscal feasibility plays an important role in determining whether or not to proceed with a proposed development, fiscal impact analysis is a critical component of any development impact assessment.


Development often leads to environmental impacts including, but not limited to, loss of open space,
impacts on groundwater and surface water quantity and quality (e.g., drinking water supplies), changes in air quality, increases in impervious cover (e.g., paved roads, parking lots), alteration of wildlife habitat and changes in landscape aesthetics. To the extent that a proposed development affects natural resources in a community, an environmental impact assessment is designed to identify the level of impact and assist the community in ensuring that development plans avoid and/or mitigate associated environmental impacts.


Socio-economic impact assessment focuses on evaluating the impacts development has on community social and economic well-being. This analysis relies on both quantitative and qualitative measures of impacts. Development impacts are generally evaluated in terms of changes in community demographics, housing, employment and income, market effects, public services, and aesthetic qualities of the community. Qualitative assessment of community perceptions about development is an equally important measure of development impacts. Assessing proposed developments in a socioeconomic context will help community leaders and residents identify potential social equity issues, evaluate the adequacy of social services and determine whether the project may adversely affect overall social well-being.


Traffic is a natural result of many development projects. Thus, in considering a development proposal, it is important to evaluate potential transportation-related impacts including additional infrastructure requirements (e.g., more roads, traffic lights), and increased traffic congestion. A transportation impact assessment will assist the community in ensuring that traffic in the community continues to flow adequately. When prepared in conjunction with the other impact assessment components included in this guide, the transportation impact assessment will help determine the feasibility of additional transportation projects needed to accommodate growth and whether there are environmental and social issues that need to be addressed if additional infrastructure is required and/or traffic increases.

What are Some Overall Guidelines for Analyzing Specific Development Impacts?

• Evaluate both positive and negative impacts of the proposed development for each of the impact

• Focus on significant impacts, not on the nominal effects of development.

• Consider direct impacts as well as cumulative impacts of the development. The cumulative impacts are often the most difficult to assess, yet may have the most significant consequences.

• Give high priority to community values and long-term goals of the community when assessing

• Involve the community in evaluating impacts, especially during the socio-economic impact
assessment process.

It should be noted that development impact assessment is designed to assess the impacts of development taking place at one point in time and space. Although many of the concerns are similar, it would have to be adapted to understand the impacts of many increments of development over time or across an extensive area.

When Should a Development Impact Assessment be Conducted?

As soon as a development is considered and well before substantial capital has been committed, an
analysis of potential impacts should begin. Once a draft plan of the proposed development has been
submitted to the community, it is appropriate to begin thinking about the potential impacts of the
development on the community, especially whether or not the project is consistent with the
community’s plan or vision for the future. It is also important to keep in mind that the development
impact assessment must be responsive to changes in the proposed development (e.g., size, scope, type
of development).

Who is this Guide Written for?

This guide is intended for use by community leaders, planners, extension agents and community
residents. Ideally, the development impact assessment should be pre-pared by a planner or staff person in the community who has knowledge of and is responsible for the issues addressed in the assessment.

It may often be appropriate for the individual(s) in charge of the assessment to seek the assistance of a community task force or planning commission. Development impact assessment presents the
community with an opportunity to provide valuable input into the local planning and decision-making

What are the Steps to Development Impact Analysis?

Once a development proposal is received and before the impact analysis is con-ducted, a number of
preliminary questions and concerns should be addressed. Prior to engaging in the impact analysis,
consider the following steps:

1. Review the proposal for consistency with your community’s zoning code, land use plan and/or
comprehensive plan.

2. If the proposal is not consistent, clarify community needs and values about the site and its future

3. Consider the following factors: the magnitude of the development proposal (in terms of potential workers or residents and size), your time and your resource constraints. Then, decide how detailed an impact analysis is possible. For example, a smaller development that is not expected to attract a large number of residents or workers may not need a social impact assessment or a traffic impact assessment.

Once you have decided to conduct a development impact assessment, continue the process as

4. Develop an information gathering strategy. The first component is to decide what data will be needed and what is currently available. Then, information collection and integration mechanisms must be developed. Information collection may require gathering data from other agencies, setting up task forces or public meetings, and getting detailed information from developers. Data integration typically involves converting data to common formats in data bases, spreadsheets and geographic information systems, though simply gathering information in existing (e.g., paper) formats may be sufficient for some development impact assessments. It may be necessary to gather additional data as the process progresses.

5. Examine each of the impact categories you have decided to address to gauge the overall effects
of the proposed development on the community. This requires gathering information on the
development; collecting data on the fiscal and social and economic resources in your community; and eliciting the expertise and opinions of staff and community residents. The impact assessment should be integrated into the larger planning framework for the community and assist the community in adhering to its priorities. This guide is intended to assist you with Steps four and five described above.

How is the Guide Structured?

The guide allows the user to evaluate a proposed development from a number of important and
different dimensions — fiscal, environmental, socio-economic and transportation-related impacts. It is intended to be used to evaluate proposed developments ranging from subdivisions to strip malls.
The chapters of this guide work through each of the impact areas individually, yet emphasize the
importance of using the guide as a whole, so that a comprehensive impact analysis may be achieved.
Each chapter includes a series of workbook-style pages that are designed to ease the process of
preparing the impact assessment. The list of references provided at the end of each chapter offer
direction to the user on where to go for additional information on the methods and types of information that may be useful in preparing a comprehensive development impact assessment.

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Common Ground: Report of the DNR Land Use Task Force. Madison, WI.

Design by Free WordPress Themes | Bloggerized by Lasantha - Premium Blogger Themes | Affiliate Network Reviews